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It requires a synthesis of geoneutrino experimental data with geochemical and geophysical models of the Earth. Existing geoneutrino data are a byproduct of antineutrino measurements with detectors designed primarily for fundamental neutrino physics research.
Future experiments devised with a geophysical agenda in mind would benefit geoscience. Proposals for such detectors have been put forward.
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Calculations of the expected geoneutrino signal predicted for various Earth reference models are an essential aspect of neutrino geophysics. In this context, "Earth reference model" means the estimate of heat producing element U, Th, K abundances and assumptions about their spatial distribution in the Earth, and a model of Earth's internal density structure.
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By far the largest variance exists in the abundance models where several estimates have been put forward. The geoneutrino signal predictions are crucial for two main reasons: 1 they are used to interpret geoneutrino measurements and test the various proposed Earth compositional models; 2 they can motivate the design of new geoneutrino detectors. This calls for an accurate crustal model, both in terms of composition and density, a nontrivial task. Antineutrino emission from a volume V is calculated for each radionuclide from the following equation:.
The total geoneutrino flux is the sum of contributions from all antineutrino-producing radionuclides.
The geological inputs—the density and particularly the elemental abundances—carry a large uncertainty. The uncertainty of the remaining nuclear and particle physics parameters is negligible compared to the geological inputs. At present it is presumed that uranium and thorium each produce about the same amount of heat in the earth's mantle, and these are presently the main contributors to radiogenic heat.
However, neutrino flux does not perfectly track heat from radioactive decay of primordial nuclides , because neutrinos do not carry off a constant fraction of the energy from the radiogenic decay chains of these primordial radionuclides. Instruments that measure geoneutrinos are large scintillation detectors. They use the inverse beta decay reaction, a method proposed by Bruno Pontecorvo that Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan employed in their pioneering experiments in s.
Inverse beta decay is a charged current weak interaction, where an electron antineutrino interacts with a proton , producing a positron and a neutron :.
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Only antineutrinos with energies above the kinematic threshold of 1. After depositing its kinetic energy, the positron promptly annihilates with an electron:. With a delay of few tens to few hundred microseconds the neutron combines with a proton to form a deuteron :. The two light flashes associated with the positron and the neutron are coincident in time and in space, which provides a powerful method to reject single-flash non-antineutrino background events in the liquid scintillator.
Antineutrinos produced in man-made nuclear reactors overlap in energy range with geologically produced antineutrinos and are also counted by these detectors. Because of the kinematic threshold of this antineutrino detection method, only the highest energy geoneutrinos from Th and U decay chains can be detected. Geoneutrinos from 40 K decay have energies below the threshold and cannot be detected using inverse beta decay reaction.
Experimental particle physicists are developing other detection methods, which are not limited by an energy threshold e. TNU is specific to the inverse beta decay detection mechanism with protons. Results based on a live-time of days and presented in mark the first detection of geoneutrinos. The total number of antineutrino events was , of which 4. A update of KamLAND's result used data from days of detector time and benefited from improved purity of the scintillator as well as a reduced reactor background from the month-long shutdown of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant after Fukushima.
Of candidate antineutrino events, were identified as geoneutrinos using unbinned maximum likelihood analysis. It was found that Th and U together generate Borexino is a 0. Results published in used data collected over live-time of days. Of 15 candidate events, unbinned maximum likelihood analysis identified 9. The geoneutrino null hypothesis was rejected at A measurement of days, detected 46 'golden' anti-neutrino candidates with L limit of 4. The analysis shows that the Earth crust contains about the same amount of U and Th as the mantle, and that the total radiogenic heat flow from these elements and their daughters is 23—36 TW.
The detector is being refurbished and is expected to operate in late or From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Main article: Earth's internal heat budget. Bibcode : Sci Nuclear Physics. Bibcode : NucPh..
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Bibcode : Natur. July 28, New York Times. Retrieved 9 January Bibcode : PhLB.. March 16,